Components of Fitness and Wellness
“A balanced approach to health and wellness”
The training of the heart, lungs and circulatory system. First, know that maintaining a healthy heart is one of the most important reasons to exercise. And, since the heart is a muscle, regular exercise increases the heart’s capacity to deal with new tasks without strain. When we walk, run, swim, bike, etc., we are improving our aerobic capacity.
Recommendations: 30-60 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise three-five times a week or 20-60 minutes of vigorous-intensity exercise three days per week.
Heart Rate Max (HRM) = 220 – age.
Calculate Target Heart Rate:
HRM X .65 and HRM X .75 for moderate-intensity exercise.
HRM X .76 and HRM X .95 for vigorous-intensity exercise.
To improve overall strength, we challenge specific muscles. The best way to accomplish this is to exercise a muscle against some form of resistance such as our body weight, free weights, TRX, or bands. Then, by employing a recommended program of “progressive overload” we continually demand more from our muscles. The muscles, are forced to adapt by becoming stronger and by increasing their endurance without incurring injury. Recommendations: 2-3 times per week, do not work the same muscles 2 days in a row.
To train flexibility, stretching or repeated movement through a joint’s complete range of motion will work to increase joint range or prevent loss of motion, respectively. To stretch a muscle, it should be put in a position that produces a slight pull on the muscle but not to the point of pain. With a static stretch, the position in which a slight stretch is felt should be held 15-30 seconds, and each stretch should be repeated 3-5 times on each side of the body. The primary note regarding stretch position is that it should not cause pain or take the joint past the normal range.
The ability to stay centered or to remain in a desired position. Our balance is controlled by two mechanisms: First, by affective perception, i.e., our body’s ability to sense when we are losing balance; and second, by our speed and capability to adequately respond to our temporary loss of balance. Interestingly, this ability is a function of our strength and flexibility. The less flexible we are, the more frequently we will lose our balance. The less strength we have, the more diminished our capacity to regain our lost balance. Therefore, balance training is incorporated into strength and flexibility.
Each person is different. Your age, activity level, and body type all determine how many and what type of nutrients your body needs. Your trainer, choosemyplate.gov, and Precision Nutrition are all resources that can help you determine a proper diet for your life style and fitness goals. In addition to your nutrition, it is also recommended to drink at least ½-1 ounce of water per pound of body weight, per day.
What does the number on the weight scale really mean? Regarding overall health, weight is not nearly as important as the composition of that weight. More important, rather than tracking weight, we should be aware of our body composition. Stepping on a scale simply tells us the combined weight of all our body’s tissues. That weight may fluctuate throughout the day depending on the time of day, hydration status or what we are wearing. In contrast, body composition reveals the relative proportions of fat and lean mass in the body. Fat mass consist of two types of fat: essential and nonessential fat. The second component of body composition, lean mass, refers to bones, tissues, organs and muscle.
Fat above the minimal amount is referred to as nonessential fat. It is generally accepted that a range of 10-22 percent for men and 20-32 percent for women is considered satisfactory for good health.
A body composition within the recommended range suggests you have less risk of developing obesity-related diseases such as diabetes, high blood pressure, and even some cancers. In addition, although we face risks when our body composition is too high, we face another set of risks when our body composition is too low. When we drop below the minimal recommended levels of essential fat, we negatively affect the delivery of vitamins to the organs, the ability of the reproductive system to function, and overall well-being.